Peanut resistance to Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum

Cruickshank, A.W. and Cooper, M. and Ryley, M.J. (2002) Peanut resistance to Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 53 (10). pp. 1105-1110.

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The fungi Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum are the causal agents of two similar diseases of peanut [groundnut] (Arachis hypogaea). Both diseases cause significant losses in the Australian peanut industry. Development of cultivars with resistance to Sclerotinia will be an important component of integrated control. The aims of this project were to generate information that will assist in breeding for Sclerotinia resistance in peanut: to identify Sclerotinia-resistant peanut germplasm, to understand the inheritance and estimate heritability of resistance, and to test the effectiveness of identified sources of resistance against both S. minor and S. sclerotiorum. This study has clearly established that material that shows resistance to S. minor in the USA is resistant to S. minor and likely to be resistant to S. sclerotiorum in Australia. The high level of resistance to both S. minor and S. sclerotiorum in germplasm from Texas, particularly TxAG-4, was confirmed. VA 93B showed good resistance in the field, which is primarily due to the open bush type rather than physiological resistance. Physiological resistance to S. minor was also identified in a cultivar and a landrace from Indonesia and a rust-resistant line from Queensland. All germplasm found to have high physiological resistance to S. minor belonged to the Spanish type. Inheritance of physiological resistance to S. minor was studied using a Generation Means Analysis (GMA) of the cross TxAG-4/VA 93B and its reciprocal. The broad-sense heritability of physiological resistance on a single plant basis was estimated at 47%, much higher than earlier estimates obtained in field studies. The average gene action of Sclerotinia resistance genes from TxAG-4 was found to be additive. No dominance effects were detected in the GMA. A small but significant reciprocal effect between TxAG-4 and VA 93B indicated that VA 93B passed on some physiological resistance maternally. An experiment was conducted to confirm the value of resistance against both S. minor and S. sclerotiorum. TxAG-4 was found to have physiological resistance to both S. minor and S. sclerotiorum. This resistance was expressed against both Sclerotinia species by progeny that were selected for resistance to S. minor. On the basis of the information obtained, the comparative advantages of 3 strategies for Sclerotinia-resistant cultivar development are discussed: (1) introduction of germplasm; (2) recurrent backcrossing with screening and crossing in the BCnF1 generation; and (3) pedigree selection. At present, introduction and backcrossing are recommended as the preferred strategies

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: SNNigam Collection
Author Affiliation: Queensland Department of Primary Industries, PO Box 23, Kingaroy, Qld 4610, Australia
Subjects: Plant Protection
Crop Improvement
Divisions: Groundnut
Depositing User: Mr B Krishnamurthy
Date Deposited: 13 Jul 2013 14:04
Last Modified: 13 Jul 2013 14:04
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