Review of mutational breeding and genetic engineering approaches to the development of high protein content in the grain

Wenefrida, I. and Utomo, H.S. and Linscombe, S.D. (2013) Review of mutational breeding and genetic engineering approaches to the development of high protein content in the grain. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. pp. 1-36.

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Cereals are the most important crops in the world for both human consumption and animal feed. Improving their nutritional values, such as high in protein content, will have significant implications from establishing healthy lifestyles to helping remediate malnutrition problems worldwide. Besides providing a source of carbohydrate, grain is also a natural source of dietary fibers, vitamins, minerals, specific oils, and disease-fighting phyto-compounds. Even though cereal grains contain relatively little protein compared to legume seeds, they provide protein for the nutrition of humans and livestock about three times of legumes. Most cereal seeds lack a few essential amino acids; therefore, they have imbalanced amino acid profiles. Lysine (Lys), threonine (Thr), and Methionine (Met) are among the most critical ones and are a limiting factor in many grain crops for human nutrition. Because of that, tremendous research has been put into the efforts to improve them. Development of high protein content can be outlined in four different approaches through manipulating seed protein bodies, deregulating certain biosynthetic pathways to overproduce the essential and limiting amino acids, improving nitrogen sink through the introduction of transgenes, and exploiting new genetic variance. Various technologies have been employed including conventional and mutational breeding, genetic engineering, RNAi, DNA markers, high throughput genotyping and phenotyping, and genomics. Each approach involves a combination of these technologies. Advancements in nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics continue to improve public knowledge in a rapid phase on the importance of specific aspects of food nutrition for optimum fitness and health. An understanding in molecular basis for human health and genetic predisposition to certain diseases through human genomes enable individuals to personalize their nutritional requirements. It is critically important, therefore, to improve the protein quality in the grain. Highly nutritious grain can be tailored to functional foods to meet the needs for both individuals and human populations as a whole.

Item Type: Article
Author Affiliation: Rice Research Station LSU AgCenter, Crowley, Louisiana 70526, United States
Subjects: Postharvest Management > Food Technology
Divisions: General
Depositing User: Mr Siva Shankar
Date Deposited: 23 Jul 2013 09:21
Last Modified: 23 Jul 2013 09:21
Official URL:

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