Element contents and food safety of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) cultivated with wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam

Marcussen, H. and Joergensen, K. and Holm, P.E. and Brocca, D. and Simmons, R.W. and Dalsgaard, A. (2007) Element contents and food safety of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) cultivated with wastewater in Hanoi, Vietnam. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 139 (1-3). pp. 77-91.

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Extensive aquatic or semi-aquatic production of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) for human consumption takes place in Southeast Asia. The aim of this study was to assess the concentrations of 38 elements in soil and water spinach cultivated under different degrees of wastewater exposure in Hanoi, Vietnam. The results showed no effect of wastewater use on the overall element concentrations in soil and water spinach. Mean soil concentrations for selected potentially toxic elements at the studied field sites had the following ranges 9.11–18.7 As, 0.333–0.667 Cd, 10.8–14.5 Co, 68–122 Cr, 34.0–62.1 Cu, 29.9–52.8 Ni, 32.5–67.4 Pb, 0.578–0.765 Tl and 99–189 Zn mg kg−1 dry weight (d.w.). In all samples Cd, Pb and Zn soil concentrations were below the Vietnamese Guideline Values (TCVN 7209-2002) for agricultural soils whereas As and Cu exceeded the guideline values. Maximum site element concentrations in water spinach were 0.139 As, 0.032 Cd, 0.135 Cr, 2.01 Cu, 39.1 Fe, 57.3 Mn, 0.16 Ni, 0.189 Pb and 6.01 Zn mg kg−1 fresh weight (f.w.). The site and soil content of organic carbon were found to have high influence on the water spinach element concentrations whereas soil pH and the total soil element concentrations were of less importance. The estimated average daily intake of As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn for adult Vietnamese consumers amounts to <11% of the maximum tolerable intake proposed by FAO/WHO for each element. It is assessed that the occurrence of the investigated elements in water spinach will pose low health risk for the consumers.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: We are grateful for the support provided by the National Institute of Occupational and Environmental Health (NIOEH), Vietnam, in sample collection and providing laboratory facilities in Vietnam. We thank the farmers in Hoang Liet, Tran Phu and Duc Tu communes for allowance to collect samples. The study was carried out with financial support from the EU-funded project “Production in Aquatic Peri-Urban Systems in South-East Asia” (PAPUSSA); the Council for Development Research (RUF), Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs granted project number 104.Dan.8.-887 “Metal accumulation and food safety in wastewater-fed aquatic production systems in Cambodia and Vietnam”, the Research School of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (RECETO) and Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen. ICP-MS analyzes were conducted at Centre for HPLC-ICP-MS analysis of trace element speciation and plant uptake of trace elements (CHIME), Faculty of Life Sciences, University of Copenhagen. We want to thank Prof. Erik Huusfeldt Larsen from Danish Institute for Food and Veterinary Research for useful comments on the manuscript and Assoc. Prof. Helle Sørensen from Department of Natural Sciences, University of Copenhagen for valuable guidance regarding choose of statistical models.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Food safety, Hanoi, Multi element, Soil, Toxic metals, Vietnam, Wastewater, Water spinach
Author Affiliation: Department of Natural Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Thorvaldsensvej 40, 1871 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark
Subjects: Plant Production
Divisions: Other Crops
Depositing User: Mr Siva Shankar
Date Deposited: 03 Feb 2012 08:28
Last Modified: 03 Feb 2012 08:28
Official URL: http://www.springerlink.com/content/0167-6369/
URI: http://eprints.icrisat.ac.in/id/eprint/3003

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