Transgenic approaches for pre-harvest control of mycotoxin contamination in crop plants.

Cary, J.W. and Rajasekaran, K. and Yu, J. and Brown, R.L. and Bhatnagar, D. and Cleveland, T.E. (2009) Transgenic approaches for pre-harvest control of mycotoxin contamination in crop plants. World Mycotoxin Journal , 2 (2). pp. 203-214.

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Abstract

Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites that can contaminate food and feed crops worldwide and are responsible for toxic effects in animals and humans that consume contaminated commodities. Regulatory guidelines and limits for mycotoxins have been set by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and food safety agencies of other countries for both import and export of affected commodities. Mycotoxin contamination of foods and feeds can also cause serious economic hardships to producers, processors, and the consumer. Therefore, there has been a concerted effort by researchers worldwide to develop strategies for the effective control of mycotoxin contamination of crops, particularly at the pre-harvest stage. Strategies currently being utilised to combat pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination include: (1) use of non-toxigenic biocontrol strains; (2) improved agricultural practices; (3) application of agrochemicals; (4) plant breeding for resistance; and (5) genetic engineering of resistance genes into crop plants. This article highlights research on the genetic engineering of plants for resistance to invasion by mycotoxigenic fungi as well as detoxification of mycotoxins. Emphasis is placed on the most economically relevant fungi and the mycotoxins they produce. These include aflatoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, trichothecenes produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum, and to a lesser extent, fumonisins produced by F. verticillioides. Information is also presented on the use of genomics and proteomics technologies as a means of identifying genes and proteins that can be utilised in transgenic approaches to control the growth of mycotoxigenic fungi and the mycotoxins that they produce in food and feed crops.

Item Type: Article
Author Affiliation: Southern Regional Research Center, ARS, USDA, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124, USA.
Subjects: Crop Improvement > Genetics
Crop Improvement > Plant Breeding
Divisions: General
Depositing User: Mr B Krishnamurthy
Date Deposited: 08 Nov 2010 14:33
Last Modified: 29 Dec 2010 20:47
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3920/WMJ2009.1138
URI: http://eprints.icrisat.ac.in/id/eprint/481

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