Chromosome elimination in trisomics of Coix aquatica Roxb.

Rao, P.N. (1976) Chromosome elimination in trisomics of Coix aquatica Roxb. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 48 (4). pp. 179-184.

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Somatic chromosome elimination was identified and its patterns studied in a trisomic (2n=11) with marker genes in Coix aquatica Roxb. In a cross between a recessive trisomic with green base and white style (ccc ii ss) and a dominant disomic having purple base and purple style (CC II SS), all the F1 seedling progeny were purple based because of the presence of C, I and S. For C. to be expressed in seedling base, either I should be absent or S should be present with I. In style colour, however, irrespective of the presence of I and S, C produces purple phenotype. In one trisomic (Ccc ii ss) plant (designated as 4–15) of the F1 progeny, a part of the seedling base was green. All the tillers coming up from the green side of the main tiller also had green base, and those arising on the purple side were purple based. Similarly, the pistillate spikelets on the green side of the main culm and on the tillers with green base were white styled, and the male spikes showed 10 chromosomes. Female spikelets on the purple side of the main tiller and on the tillers with purple base were mostly purple styled and the male spikes had 11 chromosomes. In some of the purple based tillers, however, there were both 11 and 10 chromosomes in different regions or different inflorescence clusters on the tiller. In these tillers, where the chromosome number was 11, style colour was purple, and white style occurred when there were 10 chromosomes. In one tiller, the style colour was purple but the chromosome number was 10. The recessive phenotype of the style in the trisomic conceivably resulted from an elimination of the extra chromosome carrying the dominant allele C. On the basis of the morphological features of the extra chromosome, such as length, centromere position and distribution pattern of the hetero and eupycnotic regions, it was identified as chromosome No. 2 in the complement. It was therefore possible to place with certainty the gene c on this chromosome. Sometimes, however, the extra chromosome carrying c also was eliminated giving 10 chromosomes and purple style. In the other trisomic plants of the F1 progeny, one plant showed 11 chromosomes but in a tiller there were only 10 chromosomes and white styles. In two other plants, although the chromosome number was 11 throughout, white style was present in a single cluster of inflorescences in one plant, and in one pistillate spikelet in the other. In the latter two cases, white style was believed to have arisen as a result of a mutation from C to c or somatic crossing over, giving the genotype ccc in the affected regions. In a single plant, chromosome elimination was observed in only one cell. Apparently the 10-chromosome sectors arose from the 11-chromosome condition by selective elimination of the extra chromosome during mitosis in the primordium giving rise to these sectors. In the affected plants, elimination did not obviously occur at the same stage but at different times in their ontogeny. Instability is probably governed by one or a few major genes, associated with a number of modifiers, exhibiting incomplete penetrance and variable expression. Chromosome elimination did not apparently follow any particular pattern but was erratic. Probably some intracellular environment is necessary to trigger the mechanism governing the elimination into action. The unstable system, occurring in combination with other favourable features like the functional nature of the aneuploid gametes, sexual reproduction, monoecious condition favouring cross pollination and tolerance of extra chromosomes by the sporophyte, could be an important factor in the cytogenetic evolution of the species

Item Type: Article
Author Affiliation: Department of Botany, Andhra University, Waltair, (India)
Subjects: Crop Improvement > Genetics/Genomics
Divisions: General
Depositing User: Ms K Syamalamba
Date Deposited: 19 Apr 2012 03:23
Last Modified: 19 Apr 2012 03:23
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