Hessian fly Avirulence gene loss-of-function defeats plant resistance without compromising the larva’s ability to induce a gall tissue

Harris, M.O. and Freeman, T.P. and Anderson, K.M. and et al, . (2012) Hessian fly Avirulence gene loss-of-function defeats plant resistance without compromising the larva’s ability to induce a gall tissue. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 145. pp. 239-249.

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Plant pathogen effectors encoded by Avirulence (Avr) genes benefit the pathogen by promoting colonization and benefit plants that have a matching resistance (R) gene by constituting a signal that triggers resistance. The Hessian fly,Mayetiola destructor (Say) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), resembles a plant pathogen in showing R/Avr interactions. Because of these interactions, a wheat plant with the H13 resistance gene can be resistant or susceptible depending on the genotype of the larva that attacks the plant, being resistant if attack comes from a larva with a functional vH13 gene, but susceptible if attack comes froma larva with a non-functional vH13 gene. In this study we asked: does this susceptible interaction involving plants with H13 look like susceptible interactions with plants lacking H13? Possibly, the H13 plant attacked by a larva with a non-functional vH13 is induced to partial rather than complete resistance. Or the larva, lacking its vH13-encoded effector, is compromised in its ability to induce susceptibility, which includes forcing the plant to create a gall nutritive tissue. Responses of epidermal cells to larval attack were explored using imaging techniques (light microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy). Whole-organism responses were investigated by measuring the growth of plants and larvae.No evidence was found for partial resistance responses by H13 plants or for a compromise in the ability of vH13 loss-of-function larvae to induce susceptibility. It appears that disrupting vH13 function is sufficient for overcoming the induced resistance mediated by the H13 gene.

Item Type: Article
Additional Information: Research was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture, Agriculture and Food Research Initiative, ‘Insect Effectors in Molecular Plant-Insect Interactions’, Grant Number 2011-67013-30211.
Uncontrolled Keywords: Diptera, Cecidomyiidae, Triticumaestivum,mechanisms, gall maker, plant immunity, resistance gene, R/Avr interactions, SEM, TEM
Author Affiliation: Department of Entomology, North Dakota State University, Fargo,ND 58105,USA
Subjects: Plant Protection
Divisions: General
Depositing User: Mr Siva Shankar
Date Deposited: 08 Nov 2012 10:20
Last Modified: 08 Nov 2012 10:20
Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eea.12010
URI: http://eprints.icrisat.ac.in/id/eprint/8709

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