Detection of viridiofungin A and other antifungal metabolites excreted by Trichoderma harzianum active against different plant pathogens

El-Hasan, A. and Walker, F. and Schöne, J. and Buchenauer, H. (2009) Detection of viridiofungin A and other antifungal metabolites excreted by Trichoderma harzianum active against different plant pathogens. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 124. pp. 457-470.

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Antibiosis is assumed to be an essential mechanism exerted by potential biocontrol agents (BCAs) of Trichoderma spp. Therefore, in the present study, we report for the first time on the elucidation and production of viridiofungin A (VFA) from T. harzianum isolate T23 cultures and investigate the antifungal potential of VFA and some other secondary metabolites purified from T. harzianum cultures against Fusarium moniliforme. The bioautography assay revealed that T. harzianum isolates T16 and T23 excreted several secondary metabolites with antifungal activity. Following isolation and purification of the antifungal zones, three fractions (F223, F323 and F423) from extracts of isolate T23 and two fractions (F416 and F516) from extracts of isolate T16 exhibited pronounced fungitoxic activity in the bioautography and antibiotic disk assays against Cladosporium spp. and F. moniliforme, respectively. The structure of the antifungal metabolite in fraction F323 was identified as viridiofungin A (VFA), the first report of production of VFA by isolate T23 of T. harzianum. Following cultivation of isolate T23 in PDB medium for 9 days, 94.6 mg l−1 of VFA were determined. VFA and fraction F516 retarded the mycelial growth of F. moniliforme in the nonvolatile phase assay by >90% for each 250 μg ml−1 7 days post-inoculation (dpi). While VFA and fraction F416 showed both volatile and non-volatile effects, fraction F516 seemed to exhibit mainly non-volatile activity. Microscopic examination revealed that hyphae of F. moniliforme grown on VFA-amended medium were less branched and appeared thicker than untreated hyphae. Furthermore, in the presence of VFA, formation of chlamydospores by F. moniliforme was increased. Finally, the antifungal spectrum of VFA towards various important plant pathogens was evaluated. Germination of propagules of a variety of fungal pathogens in vitro was differentially inhibited by VFA. While in the presence of 100 μg ml−1 VFA conidial germination of V. dahliae was completely inhibited, a slightly higher concentration (150 μg ml−1) of the inhibitor was required to suppress germination of Phytophthora infestans sporangia or sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Contrary to several reports in the literature,....

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Antibiosis, Bioautography, F. moniliforme, Fungistatic, T. harzianum, Viridiofungin A
Author Affiliation: Department of Phytopathology, Institute of Phytomedicine (360), University of Hohenheim, Otto-Sander-Str. 5, 70593 Stuttgart-Hohenheim, Germany mail:
Subjects: Crop Improvement
Divisions: General
Depositing User: Mr Siva Shankar
Date Deposited: 26 Dec 2012 11:10
Last Modified: 26 Dec 2012 11:10
Official URL:

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